Crimsonian The Student News Site of Dover High School Wed, 26 Feb 2020 18:37:08 +0000 en-US hourly 1 Capitalism… IN SPACE! Fri, 21 Feb 2020 16:53:46 +0000 On the clear, sunny Florida morning of January 19, 2020, a monumental achievement in space technology was achieved. A successful test of the Crew Dragon capsule’s escape procedures had gone underway. Essentially, this means that the capsule was able to clearly display its ability to separate from a rocket if something were to go wrong during launch. However, before you go congratulate NASA on this accomplishment, you may want to think again.
This is because, while the National Aeronautics and Space Administration had supported the endeavor, the technology tested was not of government design. Instead, the capsule came from the private company SpaceX, run by everyone’s favorite billionaire, Elon Musk. While the implications of this successful test could be delved into, this is not what this article is about. Instead, there is going to be a focus on the aforementioned word “private” in “private company SpaceX.” The recent success of the Crew Dragon is an excellent example of the continuing evolution of the space industry. An evolution away from the traditional government monopoly on the “out of this world” enterprise, and one toward the rise of private cosmic entrepreneurs. In layman’s terms, we will be discussing the commercialization of space.
Until the beginning of the 2010’s, any cosmic endeavor involving anyone else besides the government was unheard of. While private companies did build a lot of the technology used during many of the most famous space missions, this was all done under government regulation. Essentially, national space had total control over the cosmos. Then, on May 5th, 2012, this all changed with the successful usage of SpaceX’s Dragon cargo capsule during a resupply mission to the International Space Station (ISS). According to Senior Verge Science Reporter Lorren Grush: “Before 2012, only vehicles operated by governments had ever visited the ISS. The Dragon was the first commercial vehicle to dock with the station.” With this victory for the private sector, the commercial utilization of space had been greatly facilitated, and while many private space organizations had been founded in the early 2000’s, the start of the 2010’s really saw these companies become less like fantasy endeavours and more like realistic, reliable enterprises. Organizations like Virgin Galactic LLC., Deep Space Industries, and Bigelow Aerospace Inc. have been attempting to get a piece out of this untapped market since the turn of the 20th century. Even Jeff Bezos, the founder of Amazon, has Blue Origin LLC., a private company that specializes in developing space-centric technology.
But what exact technology is being referred to? In fact, what is meant by “commercial space market?” Sure, there are now privately owned companies utilizing the cosmos, but how exactly are they doing this? What exactly are these organizations up to?
Well, all sorts of things! The aforementioned Deep Space Industries has its sights on capitalizing the asteroid-mining market, taking advantage of all the valuable materials these hunks of space rock contain. Additionally, SpaceX, Blue Origin, and Moon Express are all companies working to get their very own private technology on the moon. And speaking of SpaceX (if we have not enough already), the organization is hoping to begin its mission to Mars by 2022. In fact, according to Matthew Smith of Harvard University’s Science in the News publication, the rocket for this mission has already begun the process of being built, with it donning the professional name of the “Big Falcon Rocket.” However, while all of these capitalistic endeavors sound extremely interesting and, in all regards, awesome, what is in it for us, the average consumer? Well, in addition to the obvious long term facilitation of the advancement of human space travel brought about by these companies, there may also be some more short-term benefits appearing over the upcoming years.
For example, if one has ever wanted to ride in a rocket in a manner akin to riding on a commercial airliner, that dream may not be as far away as they expect. In fact, Virgin Galactic LLC has already sold more than 600 tickets to ride aboard its private spaceships, just for the low low price of $250,000 each! Alright, while the luxuries of space travel may only be available to the one percent at this time, the fact that a venture such as this is even possible makes the future all the more exciting.
Moving on from space travel, private space corporations have also been transporting satellites into the lower atmosphere of Earth. While this can be extremely beneficial for one’s internet coverage, the lack of government regulation on the practice have some worried. The previously mentioned Loren Grush states that “there’s concern that so many satellites will transform the night sky, making it difficult for astronomers to make detailed observations of the Universe when so many vehicles are whizzing overhead.” However, perhaps what is even worse is that Ms.Grush predicts that the influx of orbiting bodies around Earth could lead to congestion and collisions, eventually making the lower orbit of Earth (where most of these emerging companies preside over in their business) no longer viable for cosmic activities.
Whatever happens in the future, the presence of commercial space will begin to have an ever growing influence. From technological to even political caused by the emerging industry, humanity is just beginning to understand the implications of a more accessible universe. But whatever opinion one may have on the topic, there is a universal sentiment that can be shared by all: going to Mars would be pretty cool.

The Commercialization of Space: Selling the Final Frontier

SpaceX Celebrates Test Of Crew Dragon Capsule That Will Carry NASA Astronauts

The Commercialization of Space

This was the Decade that the Commercial Space Industry Leapt Forward 

The Commercialization of Outer Space

Commercial space is going mainstream in 2020

Image Courtesy of Universe Today 
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Microsoft is Going Carbon Negative Fri, 21 Feb 2020 16:51:40 +0000 Planet Earth faces a dilemma. Each year our atmosphere is flooded with excess greenhouse gases, including water-vapor (that’s not that bad), nitrous-oxide (okay, that’s not as great), and approximately 50 million metric tons of carbon dioxide. Yikes. That’s not good. Perhaps one could go as far as to label that as very, very bad. At the current rate the human-race is producing, greenhouse levels are predicted to skyrocket in the following years. The fact of the matter is that our planet cannot sustain its current atmospheric level, let alone what monster said level is expected to become. Society is on the rise of a worldwide crisis. And those who’ve contributed are starting to notice their mistake.

The Goal

Microsoft. Everyone loves Microsoft, right? No? Doesn’t matter. What does matter is that at its peak, Microsoft released roughly 11 million metric tons of carbon emissions into the atmosphere through various means. That level has been building since 1989 (approx.), and without interference would likely continue to grow throughout the foreseeable future. Luckily, the company seems to be working on just such an interference, as stated earlier this January. According to Brad Smith, president of the billion-dollar corporation, Microsoft is planning to be carbon-negative by the year 2030. Not carbon-neutral. Carbon-negative. This implies that Microsoft will be removing more carbon dioxide than it produces from the Earth’s atmosphere each year following the turn of the next decade. And that’s not all. Arguably an even more ambitious feat, Smith states that by 2050 Microsoft will have removed more excess carbon-dioxide from the ozone layer than it has ever produced. Period. This statement suggests that in 30 years, Microsoft will have removed more than 100 million metric tons of CO-2 from the Earth’s atmosphere. Here’s how they say they’re going to do it.

The Outline

Such an ambitious goal requires a framework. Something to root it into reality and convince the public of its possibility. Therefore, Microsoft has outlined 7 principles that will serve as legs to the massive table that is this undertaking. And boy is this a complicated table. Must be from IKEA or something.

“Grounding in science and math”- The base of the operation. All procedures taken are stated to be built off of mathematics and scientific research, resulting in the most reliable plan possible.
“Taking responsibility for our carbon footprint”- Don’t turn a blind eye. The company plans to take full responsibility for managing all past, present, and future carbon emissions.
“Investing for new carbon reduction and removal technology”- Carbon reduction is expensive. Microsoft plans to invest 1 billion dollars into the new Climate Innovation Fund. This fund will help jump start the globe toward becoming carbon negative as well.
“Empowering customers around the world”- Helping out the little guys. Microsoft plans on helping us, the humble consumers, reduce our own carbon footprints. How thoughtful.
“Ensuring effective transparency” – How’s it going over there? Expect an annual report detailing progress and any ongoing advancements. Think of it like a report card, but not really.
“Using our voice on carbon-related public policy issues” – Got your attention yet? The company plans to help draw attention towards carbon-based removal projects other than their own.
“Enlisting our employees” – The gears that make up the machine. Microsoft promises to keep its moving parts oiled in order to guarantee maximum efficiency during this change. That was a metaphor. They’re gonna look after their employees. Little to vague?.. I don’t care.

The Conclusion

Seems like Microsoft’s got quite a few decades to prepare for. Can they do it? Can they stick to their promises? Will they reach their goal by 2050? It’s a question I’m sadly not qualified to answer. But I’ve got hope. Hope that maybe this endeavor, whether it pans out or not, will inspire the rest of the world to follow in the company’s footsteps and fix this atmospheric issue we have created. In the words of Mr. Smith himself, “It’s time to get to work.”

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90s Rock versus Contemporary Pop Fri, 21 Feb 2020 16:48:33 +0000 Like all types of art, music is very subjective. Different people have contrasting views on what music is good to even what genre of music is good. For example, I am not a big fan of rap music. I have no problems with people who enjoy it or create it; I personally do not enjoy that style because it does not appeal to my taste. We all have our own separate opinions on what we enjoy, and these differing opinions are not just helpful but also needed. This is because these differing tastes in what is “good music” ends up leading to different music genres. One popular music genre would be modern pop music, which is an amalgamation of rock, hip hop, and rap music. Pop music is literally a shortened version of the phrase popular music. Originally though, rock and roll was the most popular music genre before the late 90s. And during the 90s, alternative rock was pop music of the genre. The most interesting part of these two genres is that both of them seem to suffer from the same problems. Both genres have songs that are very similar to one another and both genres suffer from an issue of the songs being very formulaic.
Pop music and rock music, as mentioned before, have the same sounding music with their styles. One example of this in rock would be the opening of the song Slide by the Goo Goo Dolls and 3AM by Matchbox Twenty. The songs have a very similar guitar riff that sounds almost exactly the same as the other. And for an example in the genre of pop, the songs Under Pressure by Queen and Ice Ice Baby by Vanilla Ice have almost the same bass guitar part. This bass part was so similar that Queen ended up suing Vanilla Ice for copying that part of the song. These examples establish that both genres have songs that sound very similar to one another.
In addition to the songs being similar, both genres suffer from the issue of the songs being too formulaic. A recent study found that modern pop music has similar instrumentals, vocals, and beats per minute shared between songs. While rock does not have the same similarities between songs like pop does, there are still some elements that are very similar. Rock songs usually start off quiet, then get louder, add in the chorus, key change, and the song ends with the guitar being the last instrument heard. Therefore, both genres have songs that sound very similar because of the recycled elements in each.

Pop music is repeating the same rise as rock music, but will it decline like rock did?
It is hard to say; however, rap music has become very popular in recent years. So, one could make the argument that pop music will fizzle out, and rap will become the most popular. Only time will tell if pop ends up in the same boat as rock. Cultural tastes change but a diverse body of music benefits everybody because then everyone can find something to enjoy.


Images Retrieved form:

Queen Art

Ice Ice Baby Album

Feature Image

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Give Your Eyes A Rest Fri, 21 Feb 2020 16:48:04 +0000 It is taught to everybody at a very young age that there are five senses: sight, smell, touch, taste, and hearing. Eyesight is arguably the most powerful of all the senses. And it can be hard to read that 24 point font on a sign 40 feet away telling drivers about the nearest gas station. Your eyes are always at work, even in your sleep.
While sleeping the eyes reach a stage called rapid eye movement (REM). REM cycles happen multiple times during everyone’s sleep. They are moments of increased brain activity, and the eyes move at rapid rates. These sleep patterns help neurologists study the brain and how it functions during sleep. Optometric studies show that the brain actually “deletes” the movement of your eyes because the 45 minutes of blur daily is essentially useless. This phenomenon is scientifically referred to as saccadic masking.
Computers and technological screens give off a blue light that is still being studied to prove how harmful it is to the eyes. During day time it can be beneficial to energy levels and mood, but during the night it can lead to a rise in serotonin, keeping people awake. Reading while lacking focus and the ability to stay awake can lead to eye-straining. Eye strain can lead to dry eyes, which is very bad for contact wearers.
Contact wearers want to clean their contacts regularly to prevent infection\; however, it doesn’t always end like that every night. Often times people may forget to take their contacts out, and they sleep with them in leading to a larger production of eye discharge. Eye discharge is more commonly referred to as eye boogers/crust. The discharge is completely harmless, and it is used to lubricate, clean, and wet the eyes after a long day.
Leaving contacts in for too long can lead to conjunctivitis. It is a highly contagious infection that is described as the inflammation of the conjunctiva. It is just a thin membrane on the inside of the eyelids and whites of the eyes. Conjunctivitis, or pink eye, is easily treatable with prescription eye drops\; however, if it goes untreated for too long it can be spread to more people and lead to discomfort. Large amounts of discharge are produced during the cycle of infection.
For everyone, maintain good hygiene with your eyes and don’t stare at a screen for 16 hours a day. Maintaining healthy eyes can prevent serious complications and preserve one of your most important senses.

Dodge, R. (1900). Visual perception during eye movement. Psychological Review, 7(5), 454–465.

Harvard Health Publishing. “Blue Light Has a Dark Side.” Harvard Health,

Dahl, Andrew A. “Eye Strain Treatment, Causes, Symptoms, Relief & Prevention.” MedicineNet,

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The Reality of Division I College Athletics Fri, 21 Feb 2020 16:47:15 +0000 For many kids, when growing up we try a wide variety of different sports. From football to basketball. From cross country to swimming. Many kids play a different sport for each day of the week. As a result of doing so many sports and watching the professionals doing the same as you for a living, we develop big dreams. Dreams that we don’t realize would be hard to achieve.
But why do so few people go into professional sports or even Division I athletics in college? This is because the athletes that end up going professional, or to the Olympics, or whatever dreams they have within, begin at a very young age. Yes, you may have started swimming at the age of 4, but the difference is as a kid you didn’t try or push yourself. And there’s nothing wrong with that because you’re a kid, you’re simply enjoying yourself and trying to have fun with your teammates. In the meantime, these athletes that go professional at the age of 7 were doing what you were at the age of 15.
However, even kids who have started at the age of 4 and have been going all out ever since the beginning can end up struggling to achieve their goals or make it on the professional stage. “Why?” one may ask. Well, in most sports there are many things that affect the athlete outside of the court, field, track, or pool. One example is the athlete’s body type. Many sports have a favored body type or a body type that in general performs better in the provided environment. As a result, there are many athletes that surface that are considered as “freaks of nature” because of their abnormal stature that aids them in their sport.
Many kids go through high school being one of the best athletes on their team of whatever sport they happened to choose. In consequence, many of these athletes have the idea that they’re a five-star athlete or a “freak of nature.” But once they leave their town or city they truly see how large the world is and come to the harsh reality that for everyone, except one person in the world, there will always be someone bigger, stronger, faster, and smarter.
In the world of competitions and sports, there is no set way to become the best. And the track that you must take to get to where you want to be may no longer have a train, whether it is because you waited too long and now you’re too old to jump into the game and be successful, or because you simply do not have the physique, or because you simply never got the opportunity to chase your dream and simply never got your shot. Here on Earth, we are constantly comparing ourselves to someone else. Always thinking: I must be better\; I must not fail\; I cannot lose. When in all reality we’ll always have another opponent to challenge our skill and our experience.

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Mock Trial Fri, 21 Feb 2020 16:46:26 +0000 Objection your honor; hear-say has been displayed by the opposing counsel. Their client has received their information and came to their conclusion based on what their partner has told them. Objection sustained. This transaction between a judge and attorney may sound confusing, but for active members in Dover’s Mock Trial Team it is all too familiar. Many are unaware of Mock Trial, the simulation of a courtroom put on by highschoolers and even college students, but it is one of the most participated in extracurricular activities. Mock Trial was founded in 1985 by Dean Richard Calkins of Drake Law School and had few participants. Now approximately 700 teams from 400 different universities as well as 7,300 high schools participate annually.
Every year a new case is presented to Mock Trial teams across the nation. This year’s case was based around Tinker v. Des Moines, the cornerstone trial in determining student’s First Amendment rights within school, because it was its 50 year anniversary. The case revolved around Rory Maldonado, a Trillium High School student, and his suspension declared by Principal Varga. As the story goes, Rory was having a discussion about gun rights in Miss Charkov’s class when he exclaimed the intentions to hold a pro-gun rally. That night he tweeted to see if anyone else would go along with planning his rally. In his tweet Rory tagged Mrs.Charkov, THS students, and the NGOA. The responses to the post varied\; while there were many negative responses, some people agreed with Rory and decided to meet up with him to plan the rally. These agreeing tweeters included Harper Chen, a Trillium High student, Emma Peccane, a college student, and Todd Birch, another college student. With the active members present, the real birth of the rally all began.
At their meeting they decided on what they were going to say and do at the rally. Their plan was to have the rally start at the school and proceed to Paw Paw Park where they would recite cases and quotes from famous pro-gun activists. This structure of this rally was very similar to last year’s rally that supported the opposing view on guns. Last year’s rally was supported highly by the school and Rory thought the same attitude would be displayed for his rally. However, this was not the case. Students were not happy with Rory’s view and ultimately did not want him to put on a rally. With mass upset, Principal Varga urged his students to avoid the rally. Matters only went downhill from here.
A food fight broke out causing two students to be injured and a gigantic mess in the cafeteria. The cause of the food fight was uncertain with Harper Chen saying she heard students rejoice “meat equals murder” while throwing food in response to the school’s choice to get rid of the vegitatian option. However, Reese Dimattia finds Harper Chen, an active member in the planning of Rory’s rally, to be the cause of the food fight for she was found in the middle of the food hurricane. Without truly knowing the cause of the food fight, Principal Varga mandated that anyone who went to or participated in the rally would be punished. This did not stop Rory. He decided to move his rally completely off campus, cutting the school completely out of the rally. Rory went along with his new plan and held his rally. The rally was carried out in a peaceful, respectful manner, but it did have counter protestors along the perimeter of the park, blowing air horns in an attempt to disrupt the rally. Principal Varga went to the rally to see who disobeyed his orders. The next day Principal Varga called down Harper and Rory. He then punished them and only them.
Now, with the whole story displayed, teams begin reading case law. These are trials that have made it to the Supreme Court and ultimately set up tests and procedures for other courts to follow. For example, Tinker v. Des Moines established that “students do not shed their rights at the school door,” but schools can censor speech when it “causes substantial or material disruption.” Courts across the U.S. now use that trial to determine if a school or student’s action is legal. As helpful as case law is, it is equally as challenging to decipher. The vocabulary used within it is extremely advanced and new to the average person, so it makes it difficult for students to understand the law.
From this case law students start to build a case for the defense and plaintiff because each team must perform both sides of the case. This is when teams begin to write their directs. Direct examination is when a witness testifies with the help of their attorney questioning them. These are completely rehearsed and typically memorized. In the direct, an attorney is trying to get their witness to explain the events involving the incident at hand. Attorneys do this by asking specific questions that allow the witness to say their side of the story. The challenge with direct is the rule that the questions the attorney asks cannot be leading, meaning they can not imply an answer. For example an attorney would ask Harper, “Where were you May 6th?,” but they could not ask, “Harper, you were in the cafeteria on May 6th, correct?” After the direct is finished the opposing counsel has the opportunity to cross examine the witness.
This brings the team to the next step, cross examination. The point of cross examination is to disprove the ideas presented by the opposing counsel’s witness. One does this by bringing up facts written in the witness’s testimony that their attorney tried to hide, proving that they are biased, or getting them to admit to doing something illegal. In this stage, attorneys can ask any type of question, including leading questions. The witness that is getting crossed has a very important job, getting their side of the story out while still abiding to their testimony. Witnesses should avoid agreeing to statements that may not be factual. This will only give a bad light to the judges for they only know the case as much as the witnesses tell them.
The final step for preparation is to write the opening and closing statements. Though it seems easy, they are often the hardest part of the trial, especially the closing. The open is the first time the judges hear about the case and the stances taken. In the opening an attorney explains the action that has taken place, if it is legal or not based on case law, and their position. They end with a promise or feeling of assurance that leaves a good impression of the judges. The closing is very similar. It reinstates the points your witnesses have made, justifies/disproves actions with case law, and concludes with a catchy line. However, the closing has one additional element: explaining the points they scored through their cross examination. If they made the opposing counsel’s witness agree with an immoral, illegal, or unjust action, an attorney will include it in their closing statement to further justify themselves.
With Dover’s Mock Trial team, led by Mr. Bartholomew and local prosecuting attorney Amanda Miller, having prepared and practiced all these points, they walked into the New Phila Courthouse, ready to perform in front of a group of judges. The two teams, Crimson and Gray, had trials in the morning and afternoon, each doing very well. Cameron Spraggins and Eddie Baustista-Garcia received an outstanding attorney award along with Alex Byers, Grace Williams, and Calli Symons who received an outstanding witness award. Though neither of the teams made it to regionals, the time and commitment put in by both teams is impressive all in of itself.
If you want to give Mock Trial a try, do not be shy. The high school now offers a Mock Trial class for students desiring the courtroom experience. This class provides extra time for Mock Trial participants to rehearse their lines and lock down their directs, crosses, openings, and closing statements. The team is always looking for new, bright people, so go sign up for the class and be prepared to wear the shoes of a real attorney.

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Growing Up is Hard to Do Fri, 21 Feb 2020 16:45:56 +0000 It’s a Saturday morning circa 2008. You’ve been watching cartoons all morning (mostly Tom and Jerry). You got up around 7 am, as per usual. The best shows are always on in the morning, and Mom only lets you watch TV until 10 am. You don’t understand why she does it, but when she threatens that you can’t watch anything before bed, you turn the tv off. You started the morning with a bowl full of Cinnamon Toast Crunch and maybe had a little spill of milk all over the floor, but it’s okay because your dog came and licked it all up for you – what a good boy. You give him a pat on the head and return to chewing and cartoons.
Mom says you have to get dressed. You walk to your room and throw on some outfit that definitely does not match. You’re bored. It’s time to play Barbies or Legos. You build the new Lego Star Wars Death Star that opens up or you spend an hour setting up the Barbie Dreamhouse and getting Barbie and her pals in the cutest outfits. It’s lunch time. Mom made Spongebob Kraft Mac n’ Cheese with a hot dog. What a good day it has been, and it’s only noon. After lunch you go outside and walk over to the neighbor’s house to knock on the door. You ask if your friend can come out to play\; their mom says yes. You spend hours outside in the cul de sac, pretending to be superheroes flying around the city to save the bank from being robbed. Or maybe your friend comes inside to play restaurant and you go back and forth saying “Can I start you off with something to drink?” for hours. You think to yourself if you could do this all the time, save people from danger or get people food, life would be perfect. This is what you want, this is who you want to be. This is your dream.
10 years later, it’s your senior year. You walk into the high school for your last first day\; this will only be the start of many lasts. It is the year of closing one chapter to begin another. The first month or two are spent taking it all in. And then it hits you. Colleges have opened up their applications and the FAFSA has been released. It is go time. But there is one question that sticks in the back of your head and just will not leave. You are faced with trying to answer this question that could essentially make or break the rest of your life. You are no longer seven years old. You have grown up. And now that you have grown up, you have realized that becoming a superhero who flies in his super cape is just not a reality. It is not going to pay off your student loans or buy a house or support the family you will have. So…what will?
Almost every adult will tell you to do what you love or what you are passionate about. While this may seem obvious, it is far from the answer. Some people will have it all figured out. They have had their life planned or planned out for them by their parents for a long time. It is so hard to see someone have it figured out, and you have absolutely no idea. You cry for hours, frustrated by what seemed so simple when you were seven. Maybe you love working with children but you know that after going to school and taking loans that you will be in so much debt the teacher salary will not cover the expenses of the present and the past.
According to statistics from The Ohio State University, as many as 50-75% of college students change their major at least one time before they earn their degree. Even the people who have some sort of idea going in at times change their minds. Sometimes, you do not ever figure it out. Mrs. Shawna Hinkle, DHS choir director, once told us that she “still has no idea” what she wants to do and that she is “still figuring it out.” Hinkle has been teaching and directing for many years and originally wanted to go to college to be a piano performance major. She is now pursuing her Doctorate in Music while continuing to teach.
Even those who we look up to and assume have it all figured out, simply do not. Making one decision that shapes your future is the most terrifying experience for everyone. Thankfully, we have the ability to change our minds and have opportunities that can lead us in some sort of direction. We may not be able to wear capes but we are able to be someone’s hero elsewhere. We just have to find our way.

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Mud Flood Conspiracy Fri, 21 Feb 2020 16:45:26 +0000 Conspiracy theories are odd pieces of history and culture. All of them form around the basis that events haven’t unfolded as we are told. The belief that the powerful and wealthy may have something to hide, which they usually do (don’t we all). A perfect blend of distrust and human curiosity. To be fair, many conspiracy theories are not all that ridiculous. Some of them actually make logical sense, and it has been proven time and time again that governments and corporations aren’t exactly honest about their dealings. See, there are examples such as Project Mk Ultra that definitely encourage this thinking. Then you have some theories that are so weird that they seem more impossible than probable. One of these theories is the Mud Flood Conspiracy, which is almost on par with the flat earth theory. The Mud Flood is a relatively young idea, and even though I enjoy a good conspiracy more than most, I hadn’t heard of this until recently. A general synopsis of this theory is that within the last 100-1000 years, civilization was reset and humanity lost much of its knowledge and many advanced technologies. This reset was caused by a huge flood that covered the land in a few feet worth of sediment. A few theorists equate this flood with the great flood of the Bible; if this theory is true, it would throw the Bible’s timeline off by more than a thousand years. There are even fewer theorists that believe that church steeples were used to radiate electricity through the air and that giants ruled the Earth, but that is a whole different story that would require diving into the rabbit hole headfirst. So, for now, we’ll just cover the basics. 

The proof of this flood comes from many examples of buildings that have seemingly been buried either fully or partially under the ground. There are pictures circling the internet showing Russia’s Winter Palace, the US Capitol Building, and the Saint Mary Magdalene church having been dug out to reveal lower levels than previously known. These are three examples that seem to be commonly used by supporters of the mud flood conspiracy as evidence. There are other various examples used though, as countless examples of buildings with windows below ground level exist. These pictures make it seem as though some of these buildings had been intentionally buried and forgotten about. There is seemingly no logical explanation for this. Some have tried to debunk this theory by bringing up what is referred to as the “cultural layer” of dirt. This layer is sediment and dust that builds up around the places that humans live. However, this has only brought up more questions. Why would previous generations let this layer build up so high? This has resulted in another large part of the theory which is that some of history has simply been rewritten or erased. Have you ever heard of the Tartarian Empire? Chances are you have not because you will not read about it in any history books, and you definitely didn’t learn about it in school. There are many old maps that have a large part of Asia east of the Black Sea simply labeled as Tartaria or Great Tartaria. Many of the conspiracists think that this is a deliberate rewriting of history that supports their arguments. This is all pretty crazy stuff, and if any of this is true then, I would be amazed.

Even coming up with this limited information took a little bit of digging, which shows just how weird this theory is. I really didn’t believe any of this nonsense until I searched for the images of these buried buildings, and there are a fair amount of them. A simple Google search will let you see at least a dozen of these buildings. Hopefully, your curiosity has been piqued because this conspiracy is crazy and really gets you thinking. So, do yourself a favor and do some digging of your own. Chances are you’ll either find the theory interesting, or you’ll find some entertainment from all of the crazy people on the internet.

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The Divisive Nature of Our Country’s Polarizing Politics Fri, 21 Feb 2020 16:44:17 +0000 The division of Americans caused by politics has never been as strong as it is today. According to the Public Religion Research Institute, more than 70% of Americans feel that the country is facing extreme polarization due to the current state of politics. Civil debate among friends has turned into heated arguments as fewer people can find a commonality among ideologies or open their minds to the opinions of others.
Typically, people identify as either a Democrat or a Republican. The ability to find a middle ground has disappeared as the devices used to further political agendas have been maneuvered to divide the American population. This strong separation of the public has created an us-versus-them mentality among political parties, Democratic and Republican alike. Allowing for compromise seems to be viewed as letting the other side win, and this is simply unacceptable. For progress to be achieved in any manner, our political parties must be more willing to work with each other on issues.
This leads to my second point – it seems as if there are hardly any people with open minds when it comes to politics in contemporary America. Each party decides what is common sense, and this is accepted as truth. Well, obviously, we need our guns. This is common sense. Obviously, healthcare should be universal. This is common sense. What is or is not “common sense” lies on party lines. If one debates another’s idea of what is common sense, there is an immediate sense of hostility and condescension towards that person, rather than an attitude of trying to learn, teach, or understand.
Contrasting political views are enough to destroy our relationships with one another. Hearing what a friend thinks politically can completely wreck how we think of them, and most times there is no effort made to understand where their beliefs are coming from. There is instead anger, stemming from questions such as “How could they possibly think this?” The question, though, is rarely spoken aloud to the one who stated the opinion. This further pushes the idea that there are two “sides,” consisting of the two main political parties, and that we cannot cross these sides because we are absolutely correct in our own ideas of what is right.
Politicians use our separation by political party to their advantage, strengthening the support they receive. Thirty-six percent of Republicans and twenty-seven percent of Democrats see the opposite party as a threat to the nation, so politicians tell their parties that they will “win” against the other side, which emphasizes the us-versus-them mentality. This helps the politician gain more support because the majority of the people in their political party want to “beat” the opposite party, so they will support whoever they need to in order to make that happen.
Until we relearn how to compromise in politics as a country, there will never be a substantial amount of progress made in areas like legislation. We will continue to lack understanding for those in a political party opposite our own, and we will continue to lose friendships over what we believe because we do not try to understand that we are all Americans.

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Prom Style Evolution Fri, 21 Feb 2020 16:41:36 +0000 The hype around school dances has changed drastically over the decades. Homecoming and prom are much more extravagant now than they ever were in the past. Over-the-top “promposals” were not even common in the early 2000s. It was more of a low-key question rather than a big poster. Nowadays, girls will spend months in preparation for prom. Girls want to ensure that they will get the dress they have in mind and that no one else will have the same one. One of the biggest differences between prom today and in the past are the style of dresses and men’s formal suits.
In generations past, a popular characteristic of formal dance dresses was to have bigger, poofy sleeves. Ruffles were also much more common in those dresses than they are now. It was not possible for a dress to have too many ruffles. Layers of poofy, colorful ruffles gave an hourglass shape to the body. Another common dress style in the 80’s was inspired by tulle skirts. Tulle material is very lightweight and has stiff netting, similar to mesh. Tulles were made more sophisticated when small embroidered polka dots were added to them. As far as the boys go, black bow-tie tuxedos were the staple. This style did not evolve much from earlier dress pants, collared shirt, and some sort of tie. Also, similar to today, girls always matched the color of their dress to their dates outfit, whether it be the tie, pants, or shirt.
Today, hairstyles are as important as the dress as girls normally get an elaborate up or down do’s that requires an excessive amount of bobby pins and hairspray. Back in the 80’s, most girls had either poofy crimped hair or poofy hair with big curls. Volume looks like it was the key component for the hair-do’s. It almost looked messy, but that’s the style that was “in.” I must add that I’ve made the mistake of teasing my hair before; it was incredibly difficult to brush out and stayed in the same shape for far too long. Unfortunately, mullets were also “in.” Let’s just say that some of those boys in prom pictures from the 80’s could definitely not rock a mullet.
At the moment, slim, tight fitted dresses are very common and in style. However, this was not a popular style in the 80’s and 90’s. Another obvious difference to draw is that newer dresses tend to have big gems, lace, or sequin material. Chunky gems on the dresses were not very common at all. Similar to today’s fashion, prom dresses were generally long and touched the floor. That is a tradition that I’ve noticed is slowly starting to lose significance. I have actually seen a few long homecoming dresses and short prom dresses. Men’s suits have remained relatively unchanged, usually matching or complimenting their dates’ look.
In the early 2000’s, girls got their inspiration for hair and makeup from magazines. Now, girls find hair, nail, and makeup ideas from Pinterest and Instagram. One could easily find hundreds of Pinterest boards dedicated to ideas and examples for prom. Speaking of nails, those long acrylic nails were never a trend in the past. Nails have turned into literal claws, especially for prom and homecoming. Although there is definitely nothing wrong with it, most girls rarely attend a dance such as prom with unpainted short nails. Instead, the norm is to pay a decent amount of money for someone to glue plastic to your fingers. Don’t get me wrong, acrylic nails can look incredible, but personally, I can’t look at acrylic nails without thinking about the videos where people tape objects on their fingers to mimic the long nails and lip-sync High Fashion.
In the end, prom styles have evolved a lot over the years to fit the newest trends of that time, and when the yearbooks of the past are pulled from the shelf, there is never a shortage of fabulous fashion to check out.

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